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[[Image:Clinton-library-41.jpg|thumb|Exterior of Clinton Library. Photo by James Hyde.]]
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[[Image:Clinton-library-41.jpg|thumb|400px|Exterior of Clinton Library. Photo by James Hyde.]]
On November 18th, 2004, Little Rock capped a seven-year effort to bring the Clinton Presidential Center to Little Rock with the largest celebration ever hosted in the state of Arkansas. There were 40,000 invited guests, a performance by Bono and The Edge, and a gigantic fireworks display over six bridges spanning the Arkansas River. Foreign dignitaries, politicians, and celebrities came for the Library dedication ceremony, and all living United States presidents, but one, were in attendance.
 
  
The Clinton Library opening brought in an additional investment of $1 billion into the historic River Market and Argenta districts, as well as vast throngs of visitors from around the world. Citizens, business leaders, and government officials have worked tirelessly to restore the luster of our downtowns on both sides of the river, adding beautiful streetscapes, waterfront attractions, urban lifestyle choices, and safe living spaces.
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'''THIS COURSE PROJECT WIKI HAS NOT BEEN RECENTLY UPDATED. QUESTIONS OR EDIT REQUESTS SHOULD BE SENT TO franapl@jmu.edu.'''
  
But how exactly did this library come to Little Rock? Who contributed to the downtown revitalization effort, and what challenges did they face? How have these changes contributed to the economic well-being of Central Arkansas generally? In January 2006 students in the [http://honors.uca.edu Honors College] at the University of Central Arkansas began a project to find out. This experimental wiki democratizes our heritage by preserving and reflecting on the memories of the people who made it happen, as well as important places, events, and signposts along the way.
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----
 +
  
'''Little Rock Renaissance needs your help''' in developing this electronic textbook ("e-text"). We want you to make ''public knowledge'' by making ''knowledge public''. Sharing on the wiki is easy. The only thing you need to do is create a [http://honors.uca.edu/wiki/index.php?title=Special:Userlogin&type=signup login]. We’ll approve you as an [http://honors.uca.edu/wiki/index.php/Help:Contents editor]. Consider using your real name as a username; we want to credit your contributions on the front page, and we want you to see the pictures. Or simply browse through the wiki and be amazed at what you didn't know about the rebirth of the Little Rock metro area.  
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If Little Rock can be [http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Appendix+D:+City+as+Text%5BTM%5D+strategies:+mapping,+observing,...-a0207227989 read as a text], then it might be said that this city clings to hope, and endures anguish.
  
'''Where to start exercising your curiosity?''' We recommend the pages on the [[Clinton Presidential Center]], the [[Little Rock River Market]], and the [[Argenta Historic District]]. Then surf over to pages on specific attractions like the [[Arkansas Arts Center]], [[Historic Arkansas Museum]], or [[Little Rock Zoo]]. Check out the subject page on [http://honors.uca.edu/wiki/index.php?title=Category:Restaurants&action=edit restaurants], and then make a reservation at one of the many [http://honors.uca.edu/wiki/index.php?title=Category:Hotels&action=edit local hotels] to attend [[Riverfest]] or the [[Arkansas Literary Festival]], watch the [[Arkansas Travelers]] play ball, or see the [[Inland Maritime Museum]]. Let's get connected with our community and our heritage and enrich our experience of the Little Rock Metro area in this collaborative enterprise!
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In the earliest days of settlement the people of Central Arkansas suffered abundantly. Ashen victims of the violent New Madrid earthquake, the first clutch of Little Rockians resettled here under a [[New Madrid certificates|relief bill]] passed in the 1810s. Soon these hardy souls found themselves toe-to-toe with traveling bands of swindlers, mercenaries, and traders, many of them "swallowed up in dram-drinking, jockeying, and gambling." Native Americans, displaced from their homes in the southeastern parts of the nation and ravaged by cholera, [[Trail of Tears|passed through here]] on their way to Oklahoma in the 1830s—leaving behind a "trail of tears and death."
 +
 
 +
'''A Bare Living Gained by Great Labor'''
 +
 
 +
During the [[Civil War]], Little Rock, population 3,727 (2,874 white, 853 black), was the site of backbreaking military and civilian labor. Paper for making gun cartridges was so scarce that the State Library was ransacked for spare material. Federal occupiers demanded water and feed for their animals, commandeered cattle for meat, and burned what could not be pulled down or removed. Neighbors retreated to the woods for survival as the city was stripped bare. Mercifully, the war ended early in these parts. The Confederate "Last Stand" of the Little Rock Campaign took place on September 11, 1863. 
 +
 
 +
Energetic citizens working alternately in oppressive heat and bitter cold carved civic institutions and backyard gardens out of a snaky riverside wilderness, turning it into a self-declared "City of Roses." But fate was not done with them yet, not nearly so. In 1894 a vicious [[Little Rock Tornado - October 2, 1894|tornado]] demolished government buildings and most of downtown. And then in 1927 a [[Great Flood of 1927|Great Flood]] wiped away roads, bridges, and carefully laid railroad tracks. These were only two of the many dizzying displays of Arkansas' natural infelicity. No wonder these people, eking out an existence in a world of uncertainty, generally remained a prudent and conservative lot.
 +
[[Image:Lr-nine.JPG|thumb|400px|The Little Rock Nine monument "Testament," on the grounds of the Arkansas State Capitol. Photo by Phil Frana.]]
 +
'''Crises and Civil Rights'''
 +
 
 +
Sometimes the wounds were self-inflicted. Racial violence was one. In the year of the flood a white mob lynched black man named [[John Carter]] who believed he had assaulted two white women. Carter's body was dragged behind a car and burned on top of a pile of church pews torn from a local African-American church. Enraged and afraid, many black families packed up and left for [[Pankey]], a rural neighborhood so far outside the city that only recently have the suburbs caught up with it.
 +
 
 +
In the 1950s unprecedented [[Slum Clearance Referendum of 1950|slum clearance]] forced poor blacks and whites out of their homes and shuttered their businesses, sometimes permanently. Engineers split the Jim Crow-segregated [[Ninth Street]] black commercial core with the [[Wilbur D. Mills Freeway]], and planners leveled historic Main Street businesses. Progress had come to the city in the form of the automobile, and dwellers fled and flocked to country cottages and shopping centers. Like so many cities Little Rock's residents exited to the suburbs and exurbs in search of economic prosperity, good schools, and decent living.
 +
 
 +
A generation of promise was squandered in the 1957 [[Little Rock Crisis|Little Rock Desegregation Crisis]], an enduring international symbol of the American Civil Rights movement. Local pillars of the community quaked with fear during the struggle while Governor Faubus convinced many that "[b]lood will run in the streets" if [[Central High School|white schools]] opened to black students. Few wanted to engage in the business of the day in such an inflamed environment, and a legacy of social and economic blackballing endured, burnished by occasional media reports of gang violence, drug abuse, and corruption.
 +
 
 +
''' Downtown Revitalization'''
 +
 
 +
The 1970s brought new leaders and new ideas into the city, and a spirit of rehabilitation, nourished in no small measure by Bicentennial reflections, buoyed the dreams of many. Not even the wrenching [[MacArthur Park]] and [[Governor's Mansion Historic District]] cyclone could wipe away the evocative power felt by the preservers of our cherished, but all-too-often displaced, ideals.
 +
 
 +
And so in the 1990s we could find a [[Museum of Discovery]] edging out a store that sold caskets in the decrepit [[River Market]] warehouse district, and a [[Ottenheimer Hall|festival hall]] and fresh food market rekindling urban investment. In total, about $1 billion of direct investment touched off a rebirth in our central core between 1997 and 2004, when the gleaming white [[Clinton Presidential Center]] came to anchor the new development. That renaissance continues to inspire hope, a hope that spreads out in waves from the six bridges spanning the [[Arkansas River]] to [[Argenta]] and [[Stifft's Station]], into the hinterlands of [[Pulaski County]], and all the way out to the fast growing regional metropolitan centers of [[Conway]], [[Benton]], and [[Jacksonville]].
 +
 
 +
Reading between the lines of the Little Rock street grid, we find a pattern of development not so different from that found in other Southern cities. There is the same struggle over civilization and its discontents: the lengths to which the metropolis should or should not imitate an intentional community drawn together by like-minded folk, and how purpose and ideology are expressed in its commercial plans, educational and citizenship facilities, and eco-sustainability. The discordant voices of business leaders, government officials, and residents on these problems are heard here - as they are everywhere.
 +
[[Image:River-market-ark-studies.JPG|thumb|400px|The Arkansas Studies Institute and Ottenheimer Hall in the River Market District. Photo by Phil Frana.]]
 +
'''A New Beginning'''
 +
 
 +
The fall of the old Main Street and the rise of the [[River Market District]], however, can be attributed to a particular clutch of aesthetic and utilitarian concerns expressed by people in the city. What things must we have to create our own vision of the American Dream? What things can we – or ''should we'' – live without? In twentieth-century Little Rock these concerns clustered around a number of key problems and proposed strategies: blight and its alleviation; crime and its reduction; the spatial reconciliation of automobile, traffic, and parking; entertainment and its convenience; Southern urban living and preservation of a distinctive rural character; clutter and its reduction; the free market and its unfettering; lifestyle and its choosing; and – not least – race and an unprejudiced view towards others.
 +
 
 +
In January 2006 students in the [http://honors.uca.edu Honors College] at the University of Central Arkansas began the Little Rock Renaissance project to build ''public knowledge'' by making new ''knowledge public.'' This experimental wiki democratizes our heritage by preserving and reflecting on the memories of the people who built the city and its environs, as well as important places, events, and signposts along the way. Read more about the development of this wiki in the [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6947/is_2_10/ai_n45180315/ Fall-Winter 2009 issue] of ''Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council''.
 
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[[Ceilings Plus]] created environmentally friendly metal and bamboo ceilings for the [[Clinton Library]]. The perforated and non-perforated aluminum ceiling panels are made primarily from recycled soda cans (~75 percent). The custom-made Arboreal® carbonized bamboo ceiling covers 9,000 square feet. [[Polshek Partnership]] selected bamboo for the ceilings as it is a "rapidly renewable" building material. The aluminum and bamboo ceilings helped the Library achieve [[LEED]] certification by the U.S. Green Building Council.
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The '''[[Big Dam Bridge]]''' (also known as the "Pulaski County Pedestrian and Bicycle Bridge," the "Murray Lock and Dam Bicycle Pedestrian Bridge," or simply "Buddy's Bridge") is the longest longest purpose-built pedestrian/bicycle bridge in the world. The bridge spans 3,463 feet of the [[Arkansas River]], and with approaches on each side measures 4,300 feet total in length. The bridge deck is fourteen feet wide, accommodating traffic in both directions. The Big Dam Bridge is mounted atop the Murray Lock and Dam by 38 separate columns. In some places the bridge is thirty feet above the dam and sixty-five feet above the level of the river.
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The [[Arkansas Museum of Discovery]] is a children's science and history museum in the heart of the Little Rock [[River Market]]. The museum was founded on Main Street in 1927 by Julia Burnell (Bernie) Smade Babcock under the name of the Museum of Natural History and Antiquities. The original artifacts were donated by missionaries. One of the most popular artifacts on display was the so-called "Head of a Chicago Criminal."
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The '''[[Choctaw Freight Depot]]''' was a companion structure to the [[Choctaw Railway Station]] on the grounds of the [[William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park]]. The [[Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf Railroad]] operated the freight depot. The depot was constructed by freed African American slaves under the direction of Charles W. Clark, owner of the Clark Pressed Brick Company in Malvern, and opened to deliveries on April 9, 1900.
 +
 
 +
In 1911 the depot was abandoned by the railroad in favor of a larger facility at the corner of East Fourth & Rector. The depot was leased in 1913 to Reaves Transfer Company, to Fisher Cement & Roofing Company in 1939, and again to May Supply Company in 1944. The freight depot spent its last forty years entombed within a number of surrounding May Supply warehouses. [[Eugene Pfeifer III]] was the last owner of the site before being condemned by the [[City of Little Rock]].
 +
 
 +
The depot was razed by the [[Clinton Foundation]] on November 21, 2001, despite a three-month effort to save the historic structure led by the Friends of the Choctaw Terminal. Little Rock preservationist Gregory Ferguson and Friends of the Choctaw Terminal complained that the Clinton Foundation and City of Little Rock had failed to fully comply with the spirit of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, which specifies a full site review where historic structures are adversely affected by projects funded with federal dollars.  
 
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'''[[Acxiom]] Corp. of Little Rock''' recently won the 2008 American Architecture Award for the design of its Data Center. According to [[Reese Rowland]] of [[Polk Stanley Rowland Curzon Porter Architects]] LTD, the company that designed the building, it is the second American Architecture Award the Little Rock firm has received in the past two years. The first was for the design of [[Heifer International]]'s headquarters. [http://www.arkansasbusiness.com/article.aspx?aid=109099.54928.121228 Read more]
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The '''[[Arkansas Game and Fish Commission]]''' has opened its fourth nature center, a $8.5 million facility located in the city's River Market District. The [[Witt Stephens Jr. Central Arkansas Nature Center]] is located on 3.4 acres on the bank of the Arkansas River and down the street from the Clinton Presidential Library. The 16,232-square-foot facility was named for Stephens, a former commissioner who pushed for the state's conservation sales tax in 1996. [http://www.djournal.com/pages/story.asp?ID=284161&pub=1&div=Sports Read more]
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A $2.6 million grant from the U.S. Economic Development Administration will complete fundraising efforts for the conversion of the [[Rock Island Railway Bridge]] near the [[Clinton Presidential Library]] into a pedestrian and bicycle bridge, U.S. Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced today. [http://arkansasnews.com/2010/04/07/2-million-grant-completes-fundraising-for-rock-island-bridge-project/ Read more]
 
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<h2 style="margin:0;background:#cedff2;font-family:sans-serif;font-size:120%;font-weight:bold;border:1px solid #a3b0bf;text-align:left;color:#000;padding-left:0.4em;padding-top:0.2em;padding-bottom:0.2em;">This month in history</h2>
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<h2 style="margin:0;background:#cedff2;font-family:sans-serif;font-size:120%;font-weight:bold;border:1px solid #a3b0bf;text-align:left;color:#000;padding-left:0.4em;padding-top:0.2em;padding-bottom:0.2em;">Fifty years ago</h2>
 
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'''1999''' - [[ALLTEL Arena]], an 18,000 seat multi-purpose facility, opens in October 1999 at a cost of $71 million.
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The '''[[Central Little Rock Urban Renewal Project]]''' (CLR URP) began in '''1961''' as a joint effort of the [[Urban Progress Association]], the [[Little Rock Housing Authority]] (LRHA), [[Downtown Little Rock Unlimited]] the [[City of Little Rock]], and local architects. The project's roots lay in the [[Main Street 1969 plan]] created by the [[Arkansas Chapter of the American Institute of Architects]] in the spring of 1957. The Central Litle Rock Project became a national model for urban revitalization in the 1960s (then called "slum clearance"). [[Raymond Rebsamen]], the president of the organization, claimed the group's goal in the Central Little Rock Urban Renewal Project was to have "the first capital city in the national where no child will come out of a slum to go to school." But it also sought to obliterate bad publicity stemming from the [[Little Rock Crisis]] of 1957, which exposed the city as a powerful "symbol of brutality and prejudice for all the world to scorn."
 
 
'''2007''' - In October 2007 [[Metroplan]] begings studying the possibility of extending the [[River Rail]] streetcar line from the eastern terminus on the grounds of the [[Clinton Presidential Center]] to the [[Little Rock National Airport]]. More from the [[timeline]]
 
 
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[[Image:LittleRock_panorama.jpg|thumb|1280 px|Little Rock panorama, looking west from Clinton Presidential Center and Park. Photo by Nima Kasraie.]]  
 
[[Image:LittleRock_panorama.jpg|thumb|1280 px|Little Rock panorama, looking west from Clinton Presidential Center and Park. Photo by Nima Kasraie.]]  
==Project Collaborators==
 
  
* '''Team Leader, Oral History Methods:''' Phil Frana '''[pfrana at uca dot edu]'''
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==Little Rock Renaissance Project Collaborators==
* '''Administration, Grantmaking, Professional Best Practices:''' Amanda Allen
+
 
* '''Video Production:''' Eric Deitz
+
* '''Team Leader, Oral History Methods:''' [[Philip Frana]] '''[pfrana@uca.edu]'''
 +
* '''Administration, Grantmaking, Professional Best Practices:''' Amanda Allen, Garrett Wright
 +
* '''Video Production:''' Eric Deitz, Kim Risi
 
* '''Administrative Assistant:''' Blake Bowman
 
* '''Administrative Assistant:''' Blake Bowman
 
* '''Production Assistant:''' Allison Yocum
 
* '''Production Assistant:''' Allison Yocum
* '''Photography:''' James Hyde, Casey Gambill, Megan Davari, Amanda Allen, Allison Hogue, Nathan Smith, Katy Simers, Wade Fuqua, Nathan Scarborough, Spencer Smith, Austin Keaster, Elizabeth Youngblood, Caroline Borden, Elizabeth Housley
+
* '''Photography:''' James Hyde, Casey Gambill, Megan Davari, Amanda Allen, Allison Hogue, Nathan Smith, Katy Simers, Wade Fuqua, Nathan Scarborough, Spencer Smith, Austin Keaster, Elizabeth Youngblood, Caroline Borden, Elizabeth Housley, Sean Oakley, Chip Shaw, Ben Wold, Wilson Alobuia, Clint White, Zack Stallings
* '''Interviews:''' Courtney Bennett, Ben Dobbs, John Greene, James Hyde, Adam Lucas, Ryan Morrow, Fabia Bertram, Blake Bowman, Nicholas Coelho, Megan Davari, Casey Gambill, John Lenehan, Jeremy Morgan, Allison Yocum
+
* '''Interviews:''' Wilson Alobuia, Brett Bailey, Courtney Bennett, Lindsey Cason, Ben Dobbs, John Greene, James Hyde, Adam Lucas, Casey Mikula, Shannon Miller, Ebony Moore, Ryan Morrow, Fabia Bertram, Blake Bowman, Nicholas Coelho, Megan Davari, Casey Gambill, Stefani Johnson, Doug Knight, John Lenehan, Jeremy Morgan, Kim Risi, Zachary Stallings, Dustin Ward, Clint White, Ben Wold, Garrett Wright, Allison Yocum
 
* '''Wiki Administration:''' Thomas Bertram
 
* '''Wiki Administration:''' Thomas Bertram
 
* '''Knowledge Engineer:''' Megan Davari
 
* '''Knowledge Engineer:''' Megan Davari
* '''Wiki authors:''' Fabia Bertram, Blake Bowman, Nicholas Coelho, Megan Davari, Casey Gambill, John Lenehan, Jeremy Morgan, Maegan Murphy, Micah Ray, Allison Yocum
+
* '''Wiki authors:''' David Adams, Saroj Adhikari, Marybeth Allinson, Wilson Alobuia, Brett Bailey, Bekah Baugh, Natalie Bergstrom, Fabia Bertram, Thomas Bertram, Caroline Borden, Blake Bowman, Lindsey Cason, Nicholas Coelho, Megan Davari, Tyler Floyd, Sarah Fodge, Rebecca Harvey, Matthew Hill, Casey Gambill, Divy Goel, Michael Hinds, Katelyn Johnson, Stefani Johnson, Austin Keaster, Genevieve Kimbrough, Brandon King, Lauren Knetzer, Doug Knight, John Lenehan, Katie Matthew, LeeAnne Maxey, Carlos Merino, Casey Mikula, Shannon Miller, Ebony Moore, Jeremy Morgan, Maegan Murphy, Patricia O'Neal, Desiree Paulhamus, Brannen Payne, Tim Peterson, Caitlin Porter, Micah Ray, F. John Rickert, Kim Risi, Hayley Sebourn, Mark Senia, Zachary Stallings, Kendra Stuart, Stephanie Sun, Robbie Toombs, David Wilkins, Garrett Wright, Allison Yocum, Dustin Ward, Clint White, C. Rutledge Wilson, Ben Wold, Geoffrey Wright, John Zagurski
  
 
==Other links of interest==
 
==Other links of interest==

Latest revision as of 11:09, 3 January 2018

Welcome to

Little Rock Renaissance
3,331 articles created by contributors

Categories · New Pages · Popular Pages · A–Z index · Bibliography · Timeline

Exterior of Clinton Library. Photo by James Hyde.

THIS COURSE PROJECT WIKI HAS NOT BEEN RECENTLY UPDATED. QUESTIONS OR EDIT REQUESTS SHOULD BE SENT TO franapl@jmu.edu.



If Little Rock can be read as a text, then it might be said that this city clings to hope, and endures anguish.

In the earliest days of settlement the people of Central Arkansas suffered abundantly. Ashen victims of the violent New Madrid earthquake, the first clutch of Little Rockians resettled here under a relief bill passed in the 1810s. Soon these hardy souls found themselves toe-to-toe with traveling bands of swindlers, mercenaries, and traders, many of them "swallowed up in dram-drinking, jockeying, and gambling." Native Americans, displaced from their homes in the southeastern parts of the nation and ravaged by cholera, passed through here on their way to Oklahoma in the 1830s—leaving behind a "trail of tears and death."

A Bare Living Gained by Great Labor

During the Civil War, Little Rock, population 3,727 (2,874 white, 853 black), was the site of backbreaking military and civilian labor. Paper for making gun cartridges was so scarce that the State Library was ransacked for spare material. Federal occupiers demanded water and feed for their animals, commandeered cattle for meat, and burned what could not be pulled down or removed. Neighbors retreated to the woods for survival as the city was stripped bare. Mercifully, the war ended early in these parts. The Confederate "Last Stand" of the Little Rock Campaign took place on September 11, 1863.

Energetic citizens working alternately in oppressive heat and bitter cold carved civic institutions and backyard gardens out of a snaky riverside wilderness, turning it into a self-declared "City of Roses." But fate was not done with them yet, not nearly so. In 1894 a vicious tornado demolished government buildings and most of downtown. And then in 1927 a Great Flood wiped away roads, bridges, and carefully laid railroad tracks. These were only two of the many dizzying displays of Arkansas' natural infelicity. No wonder these people, eking out an existence in a world of uncertainty, generally remained a prudent and conservative lot.

The Little Rock Nine monument "Testament," on the grounds of the Arkansas State Capitol. Photo by Phil Frana.

Crises and Civil Rights

Sometimes the wounds were self-inflicted. Racial violence was one. In the year of the flood a white mob lynched black man named John Carter who believed he had assaulted two white women. Carter's body was dragged behind a car and burned on top of a pile of church pews torn from a local African-American church. Enraged and afraid, many black families packed up and left for Pankey, a rural neighborhood so far outside the city that only recently have the suburbs caught up with it.

In the 1950s unprecedented slum clearance forced poor blacks and whites out of their homes and shuttered their businesses, sometimes permanently. Engineers split the Jim Crow-segregated Ninth Street black commercial core with the Wilbur D. Mills Freeway, and planners leveled historic Main Street businesses. Progress had come to the city in the form of the automobile, and dwellers fled and flocked to country cottages and shopping centers. Like so many cities Little Rock's residents exited to the suburbs and exurbs in search of economic prosperity, good schools, and decent living.

A generation of promise was squandered in the 1957 Little Rock Desegregation Crisis, an enduring international symbol of the American Civil Rights movement. Local pillars of the community quaked with fear during the struggle while Governor Faubus convinced many that "[b]lood will run in the streets" if white schools opened to black students. Few wanted to engage in the business of the day in such an inflamed environment, and a legacy of social and economic blackballing endured, burnished by occasional media reports of gang violence, drug abuse, and corruption.

Downtown Revitalization

The 1970s brought new leaders and new ideas into the city, and a spirit of rehabilitation, nourished in no small measure by Bicentennial reflections, buoyed the dreams of many. Not even the wrenching MacArthur Park and Governor's Mansion Historic District cyclone could wipe away the evocative power felt by the preservers of our cherished, but all-too-often displaced, ideals.

And so in the 1990s we could find a Museum of Discovery edging out a store that sold caskets in the decrepit River Market warehouse district, and a festival hall and fresh food market rekindling urban investment. In total, about $1 billion of direct investment touched off a rebirth in our central core between 1997 and 2004, when the gleaming white Clinton Presidential Center came to anchor the new development. That renaissance continues to inspire hope, a hope that spreads out in waves from the six bridges spanning the Arkansas River to Argenta and Stifft's Station, into the hinterlands of Pulaski County, and all the way out to the fast growing regional metropolitan centers of Conway, Benton, and Jacksonville.

Reading between the lines of the Little Rock street grid, we find a pattern of development not so different from that found in other Southern cities. There is the same struggle over civilization and its discontents: the lengths to which the metropolis should or should not imitate an intentional community drawn together by like-minded folk, and how purpose and ideology are expressed in its commercial plans, educational and citizenship facilities, and eco-sustainability. The discordant voices of business leaders, government officials, and residents on these problems are heard here - as they are everywhere.

The Arkansas Studies Institute and Ottenheimer Hall in the River Market District. Photo by Phil Frana.

A New Beginning

The fall of the old Main Street and the rise of the River Market District, however, can be attributed to a particular clutch of aesthetic and utilitarian concerns expressed by people in the city. What things must we have to create our own vision of the American Dream? What things can we – or should we – live without? In twentieth-century Little Rock these concerns clustered around a number of key problems and proposed strategies: blight and its alleviation; crime and its reduction; the spatial reconciliation of automobile, traffic, and parking; entertainment and its convenience; Southern urban living and preservation of a distinctive rural character; clutter and its reduction; the free market and its unfettering; lifestyle and its choosing; and – not least – race and an unprejudiced view towards others.

In January 2006 students in the Honors College at the University of Central Arkansas began the Little Rock Renaissance project to build public knowledge by making new knowledge public. This experimental wiki democratizes our heritage by preserving and reflecting on the memories of the people who built the city and its environs, as well as important places, events, and signposts along the way. Read more about the development of this wiki in the Fall-Winter 2009 issue of Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council.

Featured article

The Big Dam Bridge (also known as the "Pulaski County Pedestrian and Bicycle Bridge," the "Murray Lock and Dam Bicycle Pedestrian Bridge," or simply "Buddy's Bridge") is the longest longest purpose-built pedestrian/bicycle bridge in the world. The bridge spans 3,463 feet of the Arkansas River, and with approaches on each side measures 4,300 feet total in length. The bridge deck is fourteen feet wide, accommodating traffic in both directions. The Big Dam Bridge is mounted atop the Murray Lock and Dam by 38 separate columns. In some places the bridge is thirty feet above the dam and sixty-five feet above the level of the river.

Did you know?

The Choctaw Freight Depot was a companion structure to the Choctaw Railway Station on the grounds of the William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park. The Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf Railroad operated the freight depot. The depot was constructed by freed African American slaves under the direction of Charles W. Clark, owner of the Clark Pressed Brick Company in Malvern, and opened to deliveries on April 9, 1900.

In 1911 the depot was abandoned by the railroad in favor of a larger facility at the corner of East Fourth & Rector. The depot was leased in 1913 to Reaves Transfer Company, to Fisher Cement & Roofing Company in 1939, and again to May Supply Company in 1944. The freight depot spent its last forty years entombed within a number of surrounding May Supply warehouses. Eugene Pfeifer III was the last owner of the site before being condemned by the City of Little Rock.

The depot was razed by the Clinton Foundation on November 21, 2001, despite a three-month effort to save the historic structure led by the Friends of the Choctaw Terminal. Little Rock preservationist Gregory Ferguson and Friends of the Choctaw Terminal complained that the Clinton Foundation and City of Little Rock had failed to fully comply with the spirit of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, which specifies a full site review where historic structures are adversely affected by projects funded with federal dollars.

In the news

The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission has opened its fourth nature center, a $8.5 million facility located in the city's River Market District. The Witt Stephens Jr. Central Arkansas Nature Center is located on 3.4 acres on the bank of the Arkansas River and down the street from the Clinton Presidential Library. The 16,232-square-foot facility was named for Stephens, a former commissioner who pushed for the state's conservation sales tax in 1996. Read more

A $2.6 million grant from the U.S. Economic Development Administration will complete fundraising efforts for the conversion of the Rock Island Railway Bridge near the Clinton Presidential Library into a pedestrian and bicycle bridge, U.S. Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced today. Read more

Fifty years ago

The Central Little Rock Urban Renewal Project (CLR URP) began in 1961 as a joint effort of the Urban Progress Association, the Little Rock Housing Authority (LRHA), Downtown Little Rock Unlimited the City of Little Rock, and local architects. The project's roots lay in the Main Street 1969 plan created by the Arkansas Chapter of the American Institute of Architects in the spring of 1957. The Central Litle Rock Project became a national model for urban revitalization in the 1960s (then called "slum clearance"). Raymond Rebsamen, the president of the organization, claimed the group's goal in the Central Little Rock Urban Renewal Project was to have "the first capital city in the national where no child will come out of a slum to go to school." But it also sought to obliterate bad publicity stemming from the Little Rock Crisis of 1957, which exposed the city as a powerful "symbol of brutality and prejudice for all the world to scorn."

Little Rock panorama, looking west from Clinton Presidential Center and Park. Photo by Nima Kasraie.

Little Rock Renaissance Project Collaborators

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Other links of interest


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